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Staff Profile of Professor Si Creer

Professor Si Creer
Professor of Molecular Ecology
+44(0)1248 382302
School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2UW, UK


I am interested in using contemporary molecular tools to address diverse questions focusing on biodiversity, ecology and evolution. This is a particularly exciting time in the field of molecular ecology, since advances in DNA sequencing throughput have recently offered a paradigm shift in our ability to assess previously intractable functional and taxonomic biodiversity at an unprecedented scale, augmenting existing biodiversity fields and empowering others. Using such technologies, I am testing a range of hypotheses regarding the alpha and beta functional and taxonomic diversity of macro-, meio- and microbial communities (e.g. microbiomes) in space and time, based on genomic, community and environmental DNA (eDNA). Focal habitats have included estuarine, coastal and deep sea environments with an increasing focus now on freshwater, terrestrial, whole organisms and the aerial biosphere in order to understand the drivers of diversity in natural communities and also how diversity is linked with ecological function, trophic relationships, environmental and human health. Current additional activities include phylogenomics, population genetics, life history evolution, polyploidy, pollination genomics. If you want to find out more, please go to my research and publication pages.

If you are interested in this sort of work or life, please follow me on Twitter: @spideycreer

Recent Methods in Ecology and Evolution podcast on the use of DNA sequencing to identify biodiversity (Creer et al. MEE 2016) also available here.



  • 2005 Teaching in Higher Education Certificate. UWB.
  • 2000 PhD. Molecular phylogeography and venom evolution of Trimeresurus stejnegeri in Taiwan. NERC funded, The University of Wales, Bangor (UWB), UK.
  • 1997 MSc. Ecology (Distinction). NERC funded, UWB.
  • 1992 BSc. (Hons) Applied Biology (2.1). University of Bath, UK.


  • 9/16 – Professor of Molecular Ecology – Bangor University.
  • 11/12 – 9/16 - Senior Lecturer in Molecular Ecology - Bangor University.
  • 11/05 – 10/11 Senior Research Fellow in Molecular Ecology - Bangor University.
  • 07/05 – 10/05 Postdoctoral Research Associate. NERC grant, “Functional and genomic venom diversity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) genes in Asian pitvipers” UWB.
  • 06/01– 06/05 Postdoctoral Research Associate (named). Wellcome Trust grant, “Reliable molecular phylogenies for medically important venomous snakes: subtropical and tropical Asian vipers” UWB.
  • 09/03 – 09/04 Temporary Lectureship in Zoology. UWB.
  • 01 – 06/01 Postdoctoral Research Associate. Leverhulme Trust grant, “Far-east Asian pitvipers: venom evolution and biodiversity” University of Wales, Bangor.

Grants and Awards

  • 2016-2019  NERC Standard Grant (PI) - PollerGEN - Using molecular genetics to understand grass species pollen deposition: enhancing bio-aerosol models and implications for human health (£1.2M, with Natasha DeVere, Gareth Griffith, Matt Hegarty, Aberystwyth; Carsten Skjøth, Worcester; Nick Osborne and Ben Wheeler, Exeter and the UK Met Office)
  • 2015-2020  NERC Highlight Topic Grant (PI) – Understanding the ecological relevance of eDNA in freshwater lotic ecosystems (LOFRESH: £1.25M, with Mark DeBruyn, Gary Carvalho; CEH Bangor; John Colbourne, Holly Bik, Birmingham and Isabelle Durance and Steve Ormerod, Cardiff)
  • 2015-2020  NERC Large Grant (CoI) – Impacts of global warming in sentinel systems: from genes to ecosystems (£3.7M, with Guy Woodward, Imperial)
  • 2015-2017  Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship (CoI) with Laura Kelly – PARMIN (£200K)
  • 2014-2016  Royalty Research Fund Small Grant, University of Washington (CoI) with Lorenz Hauser - Tackling the meiofauna paradox with metagenetics ($40K)
  • 2014-2016  Formas, Sweden (CoI) – 2 year mobility grant with Francisco Nascimento (£150K)
  • 2016-2017 Vetenskapsrådet (VR) (CoI) One year postdoc grant with Francisco Nascimento (£31K)
  • 2014-2015  SciLifeLab (CoI) - National projects in Swedish Genomes and Biodiversity with Francisco Nascimento (£15K)
  • 2013-2016  Welsh Government Grant (CoI) - Glastir Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (GMEP): Soil biodiversity (£4M, with CEH and GMEP Consortium)
  • 2013-2015  AQUATRACE: Linking life-history traits and genetic variation (Co-I) in collaboration with Einar Nielsen DTU-Aqua Denmark (168K Euros)
  • 2012-2015 - FISHPROBIO (PI) : Marie Curie Outgoing Fellowship with Martin Llewelyn (290,000 Euros)
  • 2011-2013  National Science Centre (Poland) (CoI) - Seasonal differences in diversity of bacteria and pico- and nanoplanktonic protists in 3 zones of the Vistula River estuary (£121K)
  • 2010-2011 - NERC AFI (PI) Collaborative Gearing Scheme grant: A second-generation sequencing perspective of the Antarctic bentho-pelagic microbial biosphere
  • 2010-2012 - MARMEDIV (PI) : Marie Curie Incoming Fellowship with Frederic Sinniger (174,000 Euros)
  • 2009- Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) (PI) Environmental genomics of life in the intertidal: Design and optimization of a gastropod microarray (£8000)
  • 2008-2010- NERC (PI)Post genomic and proteomics grant: Sequencing the meiofaunal metagenome of the marine/freshwater interface in key estuarine ecosystems (£140000)
  • 2008- CoSyst (PI) : The Systematics Association, The Linnean Society, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), NERC: Advancing mitogenomics via ultrasequencing: A case study within the Araneae (£10200)
  • 2007 - NERC (PI) Phylochip development for the rapid identification of littoral meiofaunal communities (£4750)
  • 2006-2009 - NERC (PI) New Investigator Award (PI) : Are marine nematodes hyperdiverse? A metagenomic solution (£76000)
  • 2004 Joseph B. Slowinski Award for the most distinguished international paper on snake systematics for Creer et al (2003a) ($500)
  • 1997 UWB Llewellyn and Mary Williams Scholarship for PhD funding (£14000)
  • 1996 NERC MSc funding (£3500)

Professional Activities

In addition to the above, I review articles for Nature Communications, Systematic Biology, Molecular Ecology, Philosophical Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, BMC Evolutionary Biology, Conservation Genetics, Heredity, Journal of Molecular Evolution, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Journal of Fish Biology, Journal of Zoology, Environmental Microbiology and Marine Ecology Progress Series.


Research interests

LOFRESH - Understanding the ecological relevance of lotic environmental DNA (eDNA)

In recent years, paradigm shifts have been made in using DNA sourced directly from environmental samples (eDNA), to identify large-scale patterns of biodiversity from taxa across the tree of life. LOFRESH is a multi-institution collaborative initiative funded by a Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Highlight Topic grant to improve our ability to utilize eDNA for tracking the presence and abundance of species in and around freshwater habitats. Environmental DNA refers to shed cells or extracellular DNA from organisms as they pass through an environment (e.g. water, soil and air), or die and decay. By doing so, animals and plants leave traces of their DNA in the environment that can be detected using a number of molecular genetic approaches.

We expect that our findings will provide valuable insights for the fields of freshwater ecology, biomonitoring and environmental assessment. Launched in March 2016, LOFRESH aims to understand the dynamics between living communities and lotic (i.e. riverine) eDNA in relation to spatial and environmental variation.

While led by Bangor University, LOFRESH is also directly supported by The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Cardiff University and the University of Birmingham. Please visit the project website for further details and please do get in touch if you would like to explore future synergies with the project, or associated research areas.

NERC PollerGEN - Understanding links between grass pollen and human health in the UK

For millions of people, the onset of spring and summer brings misery as they battle with itchy eyes and sneezing brought about by their reaction to pollen.  Up to 25% of the UK population are sensitised to grass pollen and around 10% suffer asthma that can be aggravated by pollen. However, with around 150 different species of grass in the UK and no easy way of distinguishing between different pollen grains, identifying which species of grass pollen people are allergic to is a challenge.

In PollerGEN,  a £1.2M NERC investment, we aim to develop a species level, spatio-temporal pollen assessment framework throughout the UK and develop novel pollen bio-aerosol models in order to identify which species are linked to the exacerbation of asthma.

The PollerGEN team comprises researchers from Bangor, Aberystwyth, Worcester and Exeter Universities, in collaboration with the UK Met office, supported by a range of stakeholder groups and charities. We will use a range of molecular genetic solutions, from shotgun environmental sequencing through to quantitative PCR to quantify the pollen landscape, followed by leading-edge aerobiological modelling and identifying links to the aggravation of asthma throughout the grass pollen season.

Understanding which species of grass pollens are in the air in high quantities at a particular time will allow those with hay fever and asthma to better manage their disease by being aware of risky periods, avoiding exposure and having their medicines to hand. It is predicted that the new forecasts will give more precise (and shorter) time periods that disease sufferers will have to be cautious in, and provide guidance of when these may occur.

Enhancing freshwater ecosystem biomonitoring: defining and testing an ecometagenetic DNA identification framework.

Biological indicators are used to estimate the state of the environment and the Environment Agency mandatorily monitors the health of freshwater ecosystems throughout the UK. However, traditional monitoring approaches suffer from the “identification bottleneck” problem (e.g. subjectivity, lack of resolution, labour-intensive traditional taxonomy approaches mismatched with ecosystem diversity). This KESS-funded PhD program, in collaboration with Iliana Bista and the Environment Agency, will populate a DNA reference library for up to 200 macroinvertebrate indicator species and test and test the efficacy of the use of second generation sequencing approaches in enhancing freshwater biomonitoring programs. Chironomid image ©entomart.

Understanding the microbial mechanisms underpinning carbon release from peatland ecosystems.

In their natural waterlogged state, peatlands constitute the most important, long-term, terrestrial organic carbon store on our planet. However, it has been shown that under drought conditions the stored carbon is released as atmospheric gaseous CO2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into surrounding waterways, contributing to global warming and the net loss of carbon from peatland ecosystems. Here, funded by the HPC Wales/Fujitsu partnership and partnered with Welsh Water, we will use "metagenetic" and shotgun "metagenomic" approaches to identify both the composition and functional diversity of the microbial communities responsible for drought-driven carbon loss from a range of peatland ecosystems. By understanding the mechanisms associated with carbon loss, we will be able to explore approaches aimed at regulation of key microbial drivers of carbon loss through the geo-engineering of peatlands to regain carbon. Such a multidisciplinary project demands expertise in wetland biogeochemistry and metagenomics and is lead by Caitlin Potter, in collaboration with Prof. Chris Freeman, Prof. Peter Golyshin, Dr. Nathalie Fenner and Dr. James McDonald.

Glastir Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (GMEP): Soil biodiversity

Intensively monitoring ecosystems in relation to land management schemes and monitoring progress towards a range of international biodiversity and environmental targets is a crucial aspect of understanding landscape interventions and the effects of environmental change. As part of the wider Glastir Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (GMEP), this project will investigate alpha and beta diversity of soil prokaryote, fungal and microbial eukaryotes and a range of abiotic soil factors across the Welsh landscape. Our aim is to better understand linkages and drivers of biodiversity between the abiotic and biotic realms and potential linkages between below-ground and above ground processes in relation to management regimes employed across a variety of ecological habitats.

The macroecology of marine benthic meiofaunal diversity

Marine benthic biodiversity is important for ecosystem functioning, sustainability and resilience, but the magnitude and composition of marine diversity at a range of spatial and taxonomic scales are undefined. Marine meiofaunal communities are dominated by the potentially hyperdiverse nematodes, accompanied by other small metazoans from 60% of animal phyla, therefore presenting a major fraction of global biodiversity. Despite the abundance and pivotal role in ecosystem functioning, a current estimate of global meiobenthic diversity remains a matter of conjecture. This knowledge gap is the result of the small size and the apparent morphological similarity of microbial metazoans that causes problems in the logistics and accuracy of species identification. Over the past few years myself and collaborators have contributed substantially to the development of a new field of eukaryotic biodiversity identification, that uses "second", or "next" generation sequencing approaches to simultaneously assess the richness of multiple phyla from the marine benthos. Empirical and perspective style papers have been published in Molecular Ecology, Nature Communications, Nucleic Acids Research and Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

Are marine nematodes hyperdiverse?

This NERC funded project used standard and novel molecular approaches (454 Roche 18S sequencing) and videocapture technology to estimate the actual molecular (and subsequent species) diversity present at different spatial scales throughout littoral communities of UK nematodes and other meiofauna and extrapolate this information to estimates of regional and global species richness. The utilization of second-generation sequencing to quantify molecular biodiversity represents a major advance towards identifying a crucial biological component of the earth's ecosystems and enable further hypotheses to be tested regarding the complex nature of 454 sequencing.

Sequencing the meiofaunal metagenome of the fresh/saltwater interface.

Estuaries are key transitional habitats that are significantly affected by local and global anthropogenic activities. They are typically considered to be low diversity systems; a taxonomically biased inference drawn from the low alpha diversity of macrofauna. In contrast, meiofaunal diversity is substantial, with most estuaries estimated to be inhabited by approximately 200 species of nematodes, with numbers ranging from 106-108 animals per square metre, contributing to between 50-90% of the metazoan faunal species richness. In collaboration with The Environment Agency, The Thames Estuary Partnership and The Mersey Basin Campaign, this NERC funded project will link large-scale biodiversity appraisals (454 18S sequencing, videocapture and morphology) of environmental samples across ecological gradients with hydrodynamic models and macrofaunal processes.

Understanding the functional genomic mechanisms underpinning endocrine disruption in the ecological sentinel, Nucella lapillus

Man-made chemicals that disrupt endocrine function (endocrine dispuptors) contaminate all environments, producing a range of undesirable effects across a wide range of taxa and can cause abnormal development of male and female traits. The female dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus, provides one of the most clearcut examples of anthropogenically induced endocrine disruption in aquatic ecosystems and is used as an “ecological sentinel” to detect the detrimental effect of tributyltin (TBT) in marine ecosystems. Combining second-generation transcriptome sequencing and Agilent 180K feature microarray fabrication, this work aimed to unravel the functional genomic mechanisms underpinning the action of TBT in the imposex response (the superimposition of male sexual characteristics in females) in Nucella. We were able to simultaneously observe the involvement of previously identified pathways, but also discover and confirm the involvement of additional putative PPAR pathways, providing evidence for novel commonality in endocrine disruption signalling pathways between invertebrates and vertebrates. Arising from the PhD program of Dr. Sonia Pascoal and funded by FCT and the NERC NBAF program, this work, published in Molecular Ecology was a great collaboration between MEFGL members, Prof. Andy Cossins and colleagues from the Liverpool Centre for Genomic Research and Carlos Barroso and Sonia Mendo (University of Aveiro, Portugual).

Click here to view the Past Research Projects.


Peer-reviewed Publications

Potter, C., Freeman, C., Golyshin, P.N., Ackermann, G., Fenner, N.,  McDonald, J.E., Abdasallam, E., Jones, T.G., Murphy, L.M., and Creer, S. 2017. Subtle shifts in microbial communities occur alongside the release of carbon induced by drought and rewetting in contrasting peat ecosystems. Scientific Reports, 7: 11314, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-11546-w

Fonseca, V. G., Sinniger, F., Gaspar, J. M., Quince, C., Creer, S., Power, D., Peck, L. S. & Clark, M. S. 2017. Revealing higher than expected meiofaunal diversity in Antarctic sediments: a metabarcoding approach. Scientific Reports 7: 6094 doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06687-x

Llewellyn, M.S., Leadbeater, S., Garcia, C., Sylvain, F.-E., Custodio, M., Ang, K. P., Powell, F., Carvalho, G. R., Creer, S., Elliot, J. and Derome, N. 2017. Parasitism perturbs the mucosal microbiome of Atlantic Salmon. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 43465. doi:10.1038/srep43465

de Vere, N., Jones, L.E., Gilmore, T., Moscrop, J., Lowe, A., Smith, D., Hegarty, M.J., Creer, S. and Ford, C.R. 2017. Using DNA metabarcoding to investigate honey bee foraging reveals limited flower use despite high floral availability. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 42838. doi:10.1038/srep42838

Leese, F. et al., Creer, S. et al. and Zimmermann, J. 2016. DNAqua-Net: Developing new genetic tools for bioassessment and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems. Research Ideas and Outcomes 2: e11321, DOI 10.3897/rio.2.e11321

Bista, I., Carvalho, G.R., Walsh, K., Seymour, M., Hajibabaei, M., Lallias, D., Christmas, M. and Creer, S. (2017). Annual time-series analysis of aqueous eDNA reveals ecologically relevant dynamics of lake ecosystem biodiversity. Nature Communications. 8: 14087. DOI:

Creer, S. and Seymour, M. (2017). Marine ecology: Genetics from a drop in the ocean. Nature Ecology and Evolution. 1: 037. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-016-0037

Gołębiewski, M., Całkiewicz, J., Creer, S. and Piwosz, K. (2017). Tideless estuaries in brackish seas as possible freshwater-marine transition zones for bacteria – the case study of the Vistula river estuary. Environmental Microbiology Reports. DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12509

Harvey, A.C., Solberg, M.F., Troianou, E., Carvalho, G.R., Taylor, M.I. Creer, S., Dyrhovden, L., Matre, I.H. and Glover, K.A. 2016. Plasticity in growth of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon: is the increased growth rate of farmed salmon caused by evolutionary adaptations to the commercial diet? BMC Evolutionary Biology. 16:264 DOI: 10.1186/s12862-016-0841-7

Harvey, A.C., Solberg, M. F., Glover, K. A., Taylor, M. I., Creer, S., and Carvalho, G.R. Plasticity in response to feed availability - does feeding regime influence the relative growth performance of domesticated, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr? Journal of Fish biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.13076

Harvey, A.C., Juleff, G., Carvalho, G.R., Taylor, M.I., Solberg, M.F., Creer, S.,"Dyrhovden, L., Matre, I.-H., Glover, K.A. 2016. Does density influence relative growth performance of farm, wild and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon in semi-natural and hatchery common garden conditions? Royal Society Open Science. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160152

Sinniger, F., Pawlowski, J., Harii, S., Gooday, A.J., Yamamoto, H.,Chevaldonne, P., Cedhagen, T., Carvalho, G.R., and Creer, S. 2016.Worldwide Analysis of Sedimentary DNA Reveals Major Gaps in Taxonomic Knowledge of Deep-Sea Benthos. Frontiers in Marine Science.

Creer, S., Deiner, K., Frey, S., Porazinska, D., Taberlet, P., Thomas, W.K., Potter, C. and Bik, H.M. 2016. The ecologist’s field guide to sequence-based identification of biodiversity. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12574. Methods in Ecology and Evolution Podcast available here.

Derycke, S., De Meester, N., Rigaux, A., Creer, S., Bik, H., Thomas, W.K. and Moens, T. 2016. Coexisting cryptic species of the Litoditis marina complex (Nematoda) show differential resource use and
have distinct microbiomes with high intraspecific variability. Molecular Ecology. doi/10.1111/mec.13597/full

Harvey, A. C., Glover, K. A., Taylor, M. I., Creer, S. and Carvalho, G. R. (2016), A common garden design reveals population-specific variability in potential impacts of hybridization between populations of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Evolutionary Applications. doi: 10.1111/eva.12346

Malhotra, A, Creer, S, Harris, JB and Thorpe, RS (2015) The importance of being genomic: Non-coding and coding sequences suggest different models of toxin multi-gene family evolution. Volume 107, Part B: 344-358

Llewellyn, M.S., McGinnity, P., Dionne, M., Letourneau, J., Thonier, F., Carvalho, G.R., Creer, S. and Derome, N. 2015. The biogeography of the atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) gut microbiome. The ISME Journal. doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.189

Mrinalinia, Thorpe, R.S., Creer, S., Lallias, D., Dawnay, L., Stuart, B.L. and Malhotra, A. 2015. Convergence of multiple markers and analysis methods defines the genetic distinctiveness of cryptic pitvipers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 92, 266-279.

Gray. C., Bista, I., Creer, S., Demars, B.O.L., Falciani, F., Monteith, D.T., Sun, X. and Woodward, G. 2015. Freshwater Conservation and Biomonitoring of Structure and Function: Genes to Ecosystems. In: Aquatic Functional Biodiversity. An ecological and evolutionary perspective. Eds Belgrano, A, Woodward, G. and Jacob, U. Elsevier Academic Press. Pp. 241-271.

Lallias, D., Fonseca, V.G., Gaspar, J., Hiddink, J., Sung, W., Neill, S.P., Barnes, N., Ferrero, T., Hall, T., Lambshead, P.J., Packer, M., Thomas, W.K. and Creer, S. 2015. Environmental metabarcoding reveal heterogeneous drivers of microbial eukaryote diversity in contrasting estuarine ecosystems.The ISME Journal 9, 1208-1221 doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.213

Fonseca, V.G., Carvalho, G.R., Nichols, B., Quince, C., Johnson, H., Neill, S., Lambshead, P.J.D., Thomas, W.K., Power, D. and Creer, S. 2014. Metagenetic analysis of patterns of distribution and diversity of marine meiobenthic eukaryotes. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 23, 1293-1302.

Bohmann, K., Evans, A., Gilbert, T.A., Carvalho, G.R., Creer, S., Knapp, M., Yu D. and de Bruyn, M. 2014. Environmental DNA for Wildlife Biology and Biodiversity Monitoring. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 29: 358-367.

Morgan, M. J., Bass, D., Bik, H., Birky, C. W., Blaxter, M., Crisp, M. D., Derycke, S., Fitch, D., Fontaneto, D., Hardy, C. M., King, A. J., Kiontke, K. C., Moens, T., Pawlowski, J. W., Porazinska, D., Tang, C. Q., Thomas, W. K., Yeates, D. K., Creer, S. 2014. A critique of Rossberg et al.: noise obscures the genetic signal of meiobiotal ecospecies in ecogenomic datasets. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B. 281: no. 1783, 20133076.

Malhotra, A., Creer, S., Harris, J.B., Stocklin, R. Favreau, P. and Thorpe, R.S. 2013. Predicting function from sequence in a large multifunctional toxin family. Toxicon. 72: 113-125

Montes, I., Conklin, D. Albaina, A., Creer, S., Carvalho, G.R., Santos, M., Santos, M. and Estonba, A. 2013. SNP Discovery in European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L) by High-Throughput Transcriptome and Genome Sequencing. PLoS One. 10.1371/journal.pone.0070051

Briscoe, A.G., Goodacre, S., Masta, S., Taylor, M.I., Arnedo, M.A., Penney, D., Kenny, J. and Creer, S. 2013. Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae). PLoS One.

Pascoal, S., Carvalho, G.R., Vasieva, O., Hughes, R.N., Cossins, A., Fang, Y., Ashelford, K., Olohan, L., Barroso, C., Mendo, S, and Creer, S. 2013. Transcriptomics and in vivo tests reveal novel mechanisms underlying endocrine disruption in an ecological sentinel, Nucella lapillus. Molecular Ecology. 22: 1589-1608.

Pascoal et al. 2013 was featured in Molecular Ecology's Perspectives: Chapman, R.W. and Guillette Jr, L.J. 2013. Contaminants and impoSEX: transcriptomics of contaminant-induced sex change. Molecular Ecology. 22: 1485-1487.

van Wijk, S.J., Taylor, M.I., Creer, S., Dreyer, C., Rodrigues, F.M., Ramnarine, I.W., van Oosterhout, C. and Carvalho, G.R. 2013. Experimental harvesting of fish populations drives genetically-based shifts in body size and maturation. Frontiers Ecol. Environ. 2013; doi:10.1890/120229; available from:

Pascoal S., Carvalho G.R., Creer, S., Mendo S. and Hughes R. 2012. Plastic and heritable variataion in shell thickness of the intertidal gastropod Nucella lapillus associated with risks of crab predation and wave action, and sexual maturation. PLoS One

Matzen da Silva, J., dos Santos, A. Cunha, M.R., Costa, F.O., Creer, S. and Carvalho, G.R. 2012. Investigating the molecular systematic relationships amongst selected Plesionika (Decapoda: Pandalidae) from the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.2012.00530.x .

Creer, S. and Sinniger, F. 2012. Cosmopolitanism of microbial eukaryotes in the global deep seas. Molecular Ecology. 21: 1033-1035.

Bik, H., Porazinska, D.L., Creer, S., Caporaso, J.G., Knight, R. and Thomas, W.K. 2012. Sequencing our way towards understanding global eukaryotic biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. http:/

Pascoal, S., Carvalho, G., Creer, S., Rock, J., Kawaii, K., Mendo, S., Hughes, R. 2012. Plastic and heritable components of phenotypic variation in Nucella lapillus: an assessment using reciprocal transplant and common garden experiments. PLoS One 7(1): e30289. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030289

Fonseca V.G., Nichols, B., Lallias, D., Quince, C., Carvalho G.R., Power, D.M. and Creer, S. 2012. Sample richness and genetic diversity as drivers of chimera formation in nSSU metagenetic analyses. Nucleic Acids Research: doi: 10.1093/nar/gks002

Alexandrou, M.A., Oliveira, C. Maillard, M. McGill, R.A.R., Newton, J., Creer, S., and Taylor, M.I. 2011. Competition and phylogeny determine community structure in Mullerian co-mimics. Nature. 469: 84-89.

Matzen, J., dos Santos, A., Cunha M.R., Costa, F.O., Creer, S. and Carvalho, G.R. 2011. Multigene molecular systematics confirm species status of morphologically convergent Pagurus hermit crabs. PLoS One.

Fonseca, V.G., Packer, M., Carvalho, G.R., Power, D., Lambshead, P.J.D. and Creer S. 2011. Isolation of marine meiofauna from sandy sediments: from decanting to DNA extraction. Nature Protocol Exchange. doi:10.1038/nprot.2010.157

Matzen, J., Creer, S., dos Santos, A., Costa, A.C., Cunha M.R., Costa, F.O. and Carvalho, G.R. 2011. Systematic and evolutionary insights derived from mtDNA COI barcode diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca). PLoS One. 6: e19449

Carvalho, G.R., Creer, S., Allen M., Costa F.O., Tsigenopoulos C.S., Le Goff-Vitry M., Magoulas A.M., Medlin L. & Metfies K. 2011. Genomics in the discovery and monitoring of marine biodiversity. In: An Introduction to Marine Genomics, (eds.) Boyen C and Cock, M. Springer-Verlag.

Creer, S. 2011. New technologies. pp. 46-47 in: Marine Benthic Nematode Molecular Protocol Handbook (Nematode Barcoding), eds PJD Lambshead and M. Packer. International Seabed Authority, Jamaica. Read the online version here.

Fonseca, V.G., Carvalho, G.R, Sung, W, Johnson, H.F, Power, D.M, Neill, S.P, Packer, M, Blaxter, ML, Lambshead, PJD, Thomas, WK, & Creer, S (2010) Second-generation environmental sequencing unmasks marine metazoan biodiversity. Nature Communications. DOI:, featured in the Public Library of Science's (PLoS) Biodiversity Hub

Creer, S. 2010. Second-generation sequencing derived insights into the temporal biodiversity dynamics of freshwater protists. Molecular Ecology. 19:2829-2831

Creer, S.*, Fonseca, V.G.*, Porazinska D.L., Giblin-Davies, R.M., Sung, W., Power, D.M., Packer, M., Carvalho, G.R., Blaxter, M.L., Lambshead, P.J.D. and Thomas, W.K. 2010. Ultrasequencing of the meiofaunal biosphere: practice, pitfalls and promises. Molecular Ecology. 19: (Suppl. 1) 4-20. PDF * Joint first authors.

Domingues C.P., Creer S., Taylor MI., Queiroga H., Carvalho GR. Genetic structure of Carcinus maenas withinits native range: larval dispersal and oceanographic variability. Marine Ecology Progress Series 410: 111–123, 2010 DOI: 10.3354/meps08610 PDF

Domingues CP., Creer S., Taylor MI., Queiroga H.,Carvalho GR. Temporal genetic homogeneity among shore crab(Carcinus maenas) larval events supplied to an estuarine system on the Portuguese northwest coast. Heredity (2010), 1–9 PDF

Pascoal, S. Creer, S. Taylor, M.I., Queiroga, H., Carvalho, G. and Mendo, S. 2009. Development and application of microsatellites in Carcinus maenas: Genetic differentiation between Northern and Central Portuguese populations. 2009. PLoS One 4: e7268. PDF

Malhotra, A., Creer, S., Pook, C.E. and Thorpe R.S. 2009. Inclusion of nuclear intron sequence data helps to identify the Asian sister group of New World pitvipers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 54: 172-178. PDF

Guo, P., Malhotra, A., Creer, S., and Pook, C.E. 2009.An evaluation of the systematic value of skull morphology in the Trimeresurus radiation (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) of Asian pitvipers. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 47: 378-384. PDF

Guo, P., Malhotra, A., Li, C., Creer, S., Pook, C.E. and Wen, T. 2009.Systematics of the Protobothrops jerdonii complex (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae) inferred from morphometric data and molecular phylogeny. Herpetological Journal 19: 85-96. PDF

Creer, S. 2007. Choosing and using introns in molecular phylogenetics. Evolutionary Bioinformatics 3: 99-108. PDF

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Creer, S., Chou, W.-H., Malhotra, A. and Thorpe, R.S. 2002. Offshore insular variation in the diet of the Taiwanese bamboo viper, Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Schmidt). Zoological Science 19: 907-913. PDF

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Fonseca et al. 2010 features artwork from Warren Photographic

* Awarded the Joseph B. Slowinski Award for International Excellence in snake systematics in 2004, by the Center for North American Herpetology.

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